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If you’ve ever gone for a deep tissue massage only to be let down by the amount of pressure used, then you’re not alone. A majority of people equate ‘deep tissue’ with ‘deep pressure.’ The opposite can also be said of a Swedish massage. If you’re someone who likes only light to moderate pressure, then chances are you’ll go with a Swedish massage. So why is it that people get less than what they expect from their massage? The reasons can be as varied and as simple as: your therapist’s individual style or strength; your therapist’s training and experience; the amount of communication between therapist and client; and not least of which, some common misconceptions.

Just about everyone expects a firm touch when they go for a deep tissue massage. The term ‘deep tissue’ though can be a misnomer. A deep tissue massage is designed to target the deeper layers of muscles in your body and not necessarily to deliver deep pressure uniformly. This is misconception number one. The amount of pressure used in a deep tissue massage can vary greatly, from a light, superficial stroke designed to warm up the muscle, to a deeper, more focused application of pressure used to release adhesions. This is such a common misconception that even some therapists fall into the trap of using more pressure than is needed. By contrast, a Swedish massage is designed to target the superficial layer of muscles, which in some cases may not require as much pressure. So how do you ensure you’ll get the best massage for your money? The key is communication.

Another common misconception is that it’s better to remain silent for the sake of propriety. “The therapist knows how much pressure to use, even if I’m silently screaming in agony.” You may be thinking…, not me! But you’d be surprised at how many people suffer in silence. Your therapist should establish those lines of communication by asking you your preferences and checking in with you periodically throughout the massage. Some areas may require more pressure than others, so it’s at these moments when communication is crucial. There may also be a disconnect between what your body is saying and what your expectations are. Some therapists may use your body’s reaction to guide them in the amount of pressure they use. If you tense up or your breathing becomes shallow and subdued, then chances are the amount of pressure you’re getting is at or beyond your threshold.

Since pain is such a subjective matter, one person may prefer that feeling and another may not. The question of how much pressure to use has now become more complicated. From a purely therapeutic standpoint, the body never lies. If your muscles are splinting and tensing up, it’s your body’s way of saying ‘enough!’ Of course, depending on the circumstances, that may change and often does. If for example, you’ve recently strained a muscle or are dealing with chronically tight muscles, your body may react to ‘too much pressure, too fast’ by tensing up. In cases such as these, it may be a matter of warming up the tissue sufficiently or using a different technique, which can then allow you to go deeper. But generally speaking, trying to push through this resistance with a ‘take no prisoners’ approach may actually do more harm than good.

Some therapists may have a system they use to help modulate the pressure to your liking. Some may not. The important thing to remember is that you speak up and let your therapist know what your preferences are. If you clearly communicate this and you still don’t get what you’re looking for, then it may be a matter of finding the right therapist. In light of all these variables, not everyone is a good match. Do your research and find the therapist that suits your needs.


joe-azevedo2Joe Azevedo is a New York State/NCBTMB Licensed Massage Therapist, ARCB Certified Reflexologist, and an Advanced Reiki Practitioner. He is a graduate of the Swedish Institute and is the owner and founder of Brooklyn Reflexology.

In some cases, the affects of heel pain may have a different source. As previously mentioned, tight calf muscles can often predispose you to developing plantar fasciitis. A byproduct of this are trigger points. Trigger points are tiny contractions in the muscle fiber which form as a result of over-use, strain, trauma, or shortened and tight muscles. Trigger points refer pain to other areas of the body. In the case of the lower leg, there are several muscles which could be referring pain to the heel and long arch of the foot – the same area where plantar fasciitis pain occurs. Let’s take a look at the first image below.

Soleus TP

This image depicts a trigger point in the middle of the soleus muscle. The soleus is a large calf muscle that plays a major role in plantar flexing your foot. The muscle is accessible half way down your lower leg and attaches itself to the foot via the Achilles tendon. If the muscle is tight, it will keep your foot plantar flexed (toes pointing down) and limit the amount of dorsiflexion (toes pointing up) available. This limitation will invariably put a strain on the muscles and fascia of the foot.

Quadratus Plantae TP

This second image shows a trigger point in the quadratus plantae muscle — a deep intrinsic foot muscle. Pain from a trigger point in this muscle can be a sharp, stabbing pain preventing you from putting your full weight down on your heel.

Gastrocnemius TP

And lastly, another common site of plantar fasciitis pain is along the medial arch of the foot. A trigger point in the medial head of the gastrconemius muscle can often refer pain to this area. Your gastrocnemius muscles are the superficial muscles found on the upper part of the lower leg. These muscles are very strong, powerful muscles which also attach to the foot via the Achilles tendon. They are often recruited in activities such as sprinting and jumping due to their capacity to lift your entire body weight.

It’s important to remember that while true plantar fascitiis takes time to heal, the effects of trigger points in these muscles could perpetuate pain in the area long after the condition has resolved itself. Along with treating the symptoms of referred pain, trigger point therapy has the added benefit of addressing tight calf muscles, which could be contributing to the condition. So whether you’ve been diagnosed with plantar fasciitis or are dealing with foot pain of some kind, in addition to your conventional treatments, trigger point therapy in combination with reflexology should be a part of your recovery plan.


joe-azevedo2Joe Azevedo is a New York State/NCBTMB Licensed Massage Therapist, ARCB Certified Reflexologist, and an Advanced Reiki Practitioner. He is a graduate of the Swedish Institute and is the owner and founder of Brooklyn Reflexology.

We rely on our feet to take us just about everywhere. So if heel pain is causing you to curtail your daily activities, this can be a huge problem. In the first half of this article, we’ll look at the most common form of heel pain — plantar fasciitis.  In the second half, we’ll consider how the effects of trigger points in the lower leg muscles can be a contributing factor and/or the cause of your heel pain!

Plantar fasciitis is a fairly common condition that causes pain and inflammation in the fascia which cover the bottoms of your feet. These tough bands of connective tissue run from your heel bone to your metatarsals and provide a good amount of arch support. Micro-ruptures can form due to repeated pulling, stress, and/or trauma to the area. If not treated properly, the condition can become chronic and lead to the formation of a heel spur, which can then cause further irritation and pain.

Plantar fasciitis typically affects those who have relatively: high arches (pes cavus), flat feet (pes planus), tight calf muscles, or tight, ill-fitting shoes. It can also occur in people who spend most of their day on their feet, those who are overweight, and runners who suddenly increase their activity level. Excessive pronation of the foot, running on sand or uneven surfaces, and inadequate arch support from worn out shoes can also be contributing factors.

The major signs and symptoms include:

– Pain at the heel when weight bearing

– Morning stiffness and pain that decreases with activity

– Tenderness along the medial arch when pressure is applied

– Pain when standing on your toes and /or walking on your heels

– Numbness along the outside of the foot

– Occasional swelling over the heel

– X-rays that reveal bone spurs where the fascia attaches on the heel bone

If you’ve been diagnosed with plantar fasciitis, chances are that most conservative methods should help alleviate the condition in a majority of cases. Such remedies may include:

– Rest, along with an over the counter NSAID to help with pain and inflammation

– Ice and myofascial massage to the affected area

– Orthotics and/or new shoes with good arch support

– Stretches for lower leg and foot muscles

– Night splints

In severe cases when the condition is particularly chronic and debilitating, your doctor may prescribe cortisone shots. While the shots may help to manage the condition, they are not a cure. It is crucial to be proactive and stave off any possible long-term effects by doing your homework. This will help speed up the recovery time significantly.


joe-azevedo2Joe Azevedo is a New York State/NCBTMB Licensed Massage Therapist,  ARCB Certified Reflexologist, and an Advanced Reiki Practitioner. He is a graduate of the Swedish Institute and is the owner and founder of Brooklyn Reflexology.

In part one of Anatomy of the Foot, we covered the basic structure of the foot — from the three sections and three arches, to the bones and their ligaments. In part two, we’ll get into the muscles and tendons that make the foot move.

Tendons

Like the ligaments of the foot, there are numerous tendons that attach the muscles of the lower leg to the foot. Tendons are the cord-like structures that attach muscle to bone. Here are a few key tendons along with some common forms of tendonitis.

Achilles Tendon: One of the most recognizable tendons of the body, the Achilles tendon is located at the back of the heel and attaches the calf muscles of the lower leg to the calcaneous. This tendon helps to flex the foot downward and propel you forward. Achilles tendonitis can result from overuse of the tendon while running or jumping or from a tight shoe, which can put pressure on the back of the heel.

Peroneal Tendons: There are two peroneal tendons which attach the lateral muscles of the lower leg to the foot. These tendons run underneath the lateral malleolus (the boney knob on the outer ankle) and when overused, can often times lead to peroneal tendonitis. The pain is usually felt along the lateral malleolus and heel, and can also be related to a high arch or a supinated (rolled in) foot.

Tibialis Posterior Tendon: This tendon attaches one of the deeper lower leg muscles to the foot. The tendon runs underneath the medial malleolus (the boney knob on the inner ankle) and when overused can lead to posterior tibial tendonitis. Common amongst runners or people with hyper mobile or pronated feet, pain and swelling can occur along the inner part of the ankle.

Anterior Tibial Tendon: The tendon of the anterior tibialis muscle, located in the front of the lower leg, runs over the top of the ankle to attach itself to the bottom of the inside of the foot. Pain and swelling along the top of the ankle and foot could be a sign of anterior tibialis tendonitis. This can result from excessive downhill running.

Bursa and Bursitis: Bursitis is an inflammation of the bursa sacs which lie under tendonous joints and are designed to reduce the friction against bone. One of the most common sites for bursitis on the foot is just behind your heel under the Achilles tendon. Often referred to as a “pump bump,” this bursa lies underneath the Achilles tendon and can be irritated from a tight shoe. Retrocalcaneal bursitis, as it’s called, usually develops over time and is often more acute and localized than the pain associated with Achilles tendonitis.

Muscles

Of the twenty intrinsic muscles found on the foot, only two are located on the dorsal (top) part of the foot. Seven muscles are found on the plantar (bottom) part of the foot. And the other eleven (the interosseous and lumbricals) are found between the metatarsal bones.

Dorsal foot muscles: The extensor digitorum brevis and the extensor hallucis brevis are short toe extensors. The latter extends the big toe and the former extends the other four toes.  The interosseous muscles lie between the metatarsal bones and help to move the toes from side to side and also aid in flexion and extension. There are actually two set of these interosseous muscles. The dorsal component has four muscles and the plantar component has three. Technically these muscles lie between the metatarsals, but because they’re most easily accessible from the top of the foot, they’re usually considered dorsal muscles.

Plantar foot muscles: The plantar surface of the foot is home to three layers of muscle.

First Layer: The first and most superficial layer contains three muscles. First on the list is the flexor digitorum brevis muscle which lies directly in the middle of the foot and attaches the heel to the toes. This muscles aids in flexing (curling) the four smaller toes. The abductor hallucis muscle lies along the medial longitudinal arch and helps to abduct or rather, move the big toe away from the other toes. The abductor digiti minimi muscle, found along the lateral longitudinal arch, helps to move the little toe away from the other toes. These last two toe abductor muscles are crucial in making the minor adjustments necessary to keep your balance.

Second Layer: This layer contains five muscles. The quadratus plantae muscle attaches the heel bone to the tendons of a long flexor muscle. This configuration makes it a strong aid in flexing the toes. The deeper lying lumbricals, of which there are four, lie parallel to the metatarsal bones. These tiny muscles help to flex the 2nd-5th toes.

Third Layer: This third and deepest layer has two big toe muscles and one little toe muscle. The two big two muscles are the adductor hallucis and the flexor hallucis brevis muscles. The adductor muscle moves the big toe closer to the other four toes and the flexor muscle bends the big toe downward. The last muscle in this layer, the flexor digiti minimi brevis muscle, helps to flex the little toe.

Covering all these layers of muscle are two bands of fascia that run for the heel to the ball of the foot. When irritated, it can lead to a fairly common condition called plantar fasciitis – an inflammation of the fascia.

Movements of the Foot

Finally, let’s discuss the four major planes of movement of the ankle and foot. The foot is capable of making numerous adjustments along its 33 joints, all of which are necessary for maintaining balance. For the sake of simplicity, we’ll consider the movements of the ankle joint, which move the foot.

The four major planes of movement are: dorsiflexion, plantarflexion, inversion and eversion. Each of these planes has a degree of movement that is considered part of the normal range of motion (ROM) found at the ankle.

Dorsiflexion: When you lift your foot so that your toes are pointed upward, this is called dorsiflexion. About 20 degrees of dorsiflexion is considered normal.

Plantarflexion: Flexing your foot so that your toes point downward is considered plantarflexion. Typically, 50 degrees of plantarflexion is about average.

Inversion/Supination: When your foot rolls inward so that your toes are pointed toward the midline of the body, this is referred to as a supinated or inverted foot. There tends to be more variability in this plane of movement than the previous two, so a normal range is usually between 45-60 degrees.

Eversion/Pronation: This occurs when your ankle rolls outward and your toes point away from the midline of the body. Similar to inversion, pronation of the foot falls within a normal range, which is typically 15-30 degrees. This is notably less than inversion/supination.

As one can see, there’s quite a bit to consider when discussing the feet. Hopefully this short anatomy lesson will give you some working knowledge and better equip you in making informed decisions about the care of your feet.


joe-azevedo2Joe Azevedo is a New York State/NCBTMB Licensed Massage Therapist, ARCB Certified Reflexologist, and an Advanced Reiki Practitioner. He is a graduate of the Swedish Institute and is the owner and founder of Brooklyn Reflexology.

When you consider the fact that each human foot is comprised of 26 individual bones, 20 intrinsic muscles (located on the foot), 11 extrinsic muscles (located on the lower leg but operate the foot), 33 joints, over 114 ligaments, and two pea-sized sesamoid bones, you probably don’t give your feet much thought… until they start to hurt. The foot is an extraordinarily complex and rugged structure, perfectly designed to keep you upright and mobile. Let’s take a closer look at the anatomy behind the foot.

Bones

The foot is subdivided into three sections:

Hindfoot: This area consists of 2 bones: the talus, which articulates with the tibia and fibula bones of the lower leg to form the talocrural, or ankle joint; and the calcaneus, which forms the heel of the foot and bears the brunt of your body weight.

Midfoot: The five bones of the midfoot help stabilize and support your body and form the arches of your feet.  You have 3 cuneiform bones (medial, intermediate, lateral), a navicular and cuboid bone.

Forefoot:  The forefoot is comprised on 19 bones. There are 5 long metatarsal bones which attach to the five toes. Each toe consists of 3 phalanges except for the big toe, which only contains two.  That’s a total of 14 phalanges or smaller bones in your toes alone.

The Three Arches

The foot consists of three distinct arches: the medial and lateral longitudinal arches, and the transverse arch.

The medial longitudinal arch is the highest and most prominent of the arches. It extends from the heel on the inner part of the foot to the ball of the foot along the first three metatarsals.

The lateral longitudinal arch is relatively less pronounced and closer to the ground than its medial counterpart. It runs from the heel on the outer part of the foot along the 4th and 5th metatarsals.

The transverse arch runs across the metatarsal heads along the ball of the foot.

Together, these three arches form the shape of your foot and determine to a large extent how your weight is distributed across its surface.

Ligaments

The arches of the feet are formed and supported by the smaller intrinsic muscles as well as its numerous ligaments. Ligaments are tough bands of tissue that attach bone to bone and provide stability and protection to the area. Of the hundreds of ligaments found in the foot, there are a few which are of particular importance.

The Deltoid ligament: (also known as the medial ligament) This ligament originates on the medial malleolus (the large knob on the inner part of the ankle) and fans out to attach itself to the calcaneus, talus and navicular bones. The deltoid ligament is actually comprised of several ligaments designed to protect the inner part of the ankle from undue medial stress.

The Spring ligament: (also known as the calcaneo-navicular ligament) This ligament is located on the inner side of the foot and attaches the calcaneous to the navicular. This tiny little ligament is crucial in maintaining the medial longitudinal arch of the foot.

The Collateral ligament: (also know as the lateral ligament) This ligament, found on the outer part of the ankle, is also comprised of several ligaments. The purpose of this ligament is to protect the outer part of your ankle from undue lateral stress.

The Calcaneo-cuboid ligament: This tough band of tissue attaches the cuboid bone to your calcaneous on the outer part of the foot. This ligament plays a role in supporting the lateral longitudinal arch of the foot.

Ankle Sprains: A sprain is an injury to a ligament and its surrounding structure. You may have also heard of strains. A strain is an injury to a tendon (and/or its muscle), which attaches muscle to bone. There are two common forms of ankle sprains: Inversion and eversion sprains. Let’s start with the most common.

Inversion Sprains: 90 percent of all ankle sprains are inversion sprains. An inversion sprain occurs when the tendons and ligaments of the outer ankle are over-stretched. This usually occurs when the ankle rolls down and inward. In inversion sprains, the most commonly affected ligaments are the anterior talofibular and calcaneofibular ligaments of the collateral ligament and the calcaneo-cuboid ligament. Pain and swelling may occur along the outer ankle.

Eversion Sprains: Although eversion sprains are less common, they tend to be more serious. An eversion sprain occurs when the ankle rolls up and outward. Commonly affected tendons are the deltoid and spring ligaments. Pain and swelling typically occurs over the inner ankle and top of the foot.

In the second part of Anatomy of the Foot, we’ll discuss the various muscles and tendons that operate the foot and some of the conditions that can affect them.


joe-azevedo2Joe Azevedo is a New York State/NCBTMB Licensed Massage Therapist, ARCB Certified Reflexologist, and an Advanced Reiki Practitioner. He is a graduate of the Swedish Institute and is the owner and founder of Brooklyn Reflexology.

How does one know they’re getting a reflexology session and not just a foot massage?

In some cases it can be quite obvious. Even if you’ve never experienced a professional reflexology session before, if you’re getting the same three techniques for the entirety of your treatment, chances are you’re just getting a foot rub. And although there is some overlap with massage, a reflexology session typically includes a fair amount of detailed work aimed at targeting the ‘reflexes’ on the feet. This is usually done with a technique called ‘thumb walking.’ Reflexologists use their thumbs to outline and work along specific areas of the body represented on the feet via their reflexes.

One of the first things you should inquire about is the therapist’s qualifications. Are they ARCB certified? The American Reflexology Certification Board (ARCB) is the national governing board that oversees the certification of professional reflexologists. Although massage therapists are qualified to do reflexology, the training in most massage therapy programs is limited in scope and practice. The ARCB requires an additional 200 hours of training in order to become a nationally certified reflexologist.

Since one of the aims in a reflexology session is to target specific areas of the body via their reflex zones, your therapist should speak with you before your session to determine which areas are in need of attention. Just about every part of the foot corresponds to a specific organ, gland or body part. And in most cases the reflex zone is very much a circumscribed area on the foot. For example, if you’re having digestive issues and need specific work along your descending colon reflex, the corresponding reflex is about 1” – 1.5” on lateral aspect along the bottom of your left foot. Or if you’re having sinus congestion and could benefit from having those reflexes worked on, the toes should be given particular attention during the course of your treatment.

Of course it always helps to have a rudimentary understanding of the reflexes and where they are located on the feet. But even if you don’t know or are uncertain, ask your therapist. A knowledgeable therapist won’t hesitate to answer your questions and help provide you with a safe and effective reflexology treatment.


joe-azevedo2Joe Azevedo is a New York State/NCBTMB Licensed Massage Therapist, ARCB Certified Reflexologist, and an Advanced Reiki Practitioner. He is a graduate of the Swedish Institute and is the owner and founder of Brooklyn Reflexology.

Love it or hate it, everyone has an opinion when it comes to stretching. Yet we all do it instinctually. Whether it’s the first thing we do in morning when we get out of bed or the last thing we do after being hunched over our desk for hours. The point of contention arises when stretching is done purposefully, as part of a regimen — either before or after an activity, or as a practice all its own. Whether you fall into this latter category or not, there are a few things we should know about stretching before we make up our minds on its efficacy. In this first post on stretching, we’ll be discussing the anatomy of a stretch.

Let’s face it, some people are naturally more flexible than others. Women tend to be more flexible than men. The young are more flexible and limber than their adult counterparts; and there are several reasons for this. As we age, we progressively loose flexibility as part of the normal aging process. Degenerative changes within the muscle and/or joint capsules (arthritis) can lead to an inactive lifestyle. Inactive muscles will adaptively shorten and eventually become weak. Stretching helps to maintain a certain degree of flexibility, which in turn improves our range of motion. Range of motion (ROM) is the degree of movement available for any given body part or joint.

What is stretching?

So what exactly does it mean to stretch? Stretching is the act of placing a specific body part into a position that will lengthen a targeted muscle, muscle group and/or soft tissue structure. Soft tissue structures come in two varieties: contractile and non-contractile. Examples of non-contractile structures include: ligaments, menisci, and joint capsules. This type of soft tissue was designed to provide support and stability. Their primary job is to limit or control the amount of movement across a joint. Other types of non-contractile soft tissue include fascia, skin and scar tissue. Muscle and tendons are the two primary contractile structures. Tendons attach muscle to bone, and by extension only transmit the force of the contracting muscle across a joint to create movement. Since tendons don’t actually contract themselves, that leaves us with muscles as the primary target for stretching.

Every joint in the human body has a range of motion that is considered normal for that joint. Let’s consider the hip as an example. The hip joint has six planes of movement: flexion, extension, adduction (swinging leg across the opposite leg), abduction (swinging leg away from the opposite leg), medial rotation (rotating leg so knee is pointing towards opposite leg) and lateral rotation (rotating leg so knee is pointing away from opposite leg). For each given movement there is a degree or range, which is considered normal.

Range of Motion Available at the Hip:

Flexion: w/extended knee = 80-90 deg, (w/flexed knee = 110-120 deg)

Extension: 10-15 deg

Adduction: 30 deg

Abduction: 30-50 deg

Medial Rotation: 30-40 deg

Lateral Rotation: 40-60 deg

Some people will fall below this range, others slightly above it. Hip flexion (w/an extended knee) for example tends to be the most limited movement of the hip for most people. Think of bending over to touch your toes. If you have trouble doing this, chances are tight hamstrings, as well as tight gluteal and calf muscles are contributing to this limitation. Those who have suffered an injury or lead a sedentary lifestyle might find themselves in this category.

Stretching can be done actively or passively with the help of an aid or an assistant. Depending on the joint where the stretch is performed, you can see a noticeable difference in the amount of passive ROM available. The neck is perfect example. You can yield a greater amount of ROM at the cervical spine if it’s done passively. This is not always the case for every joint however. The hip joint generally yields the same amount of ROM whether it’s done actively or passively.

Tight, short, stiff muscles have a tendency to limit this normal range of motion, as well as contributing to some other issues, such as:

– Chronic muscle and joint pain due to constant tension

– Interference of proper muscle functioning

– A loss of strength and power

– Restrict blood flow and circulation

– Increased muscle fatigue

– Muscle strain or injury

What happens during a stretch?

Muscles are comprised of thousands of tiny cylindrical cells called muscle fibers. Each muscle fiber contains thousand of ‘threads’ called myofibrils. These myofibrils are what give muscles their capacity to contract, relax and lengthen. Within each myofibril are millions of bands of sarcomeres. Sarcomeres are made up of thick and thin myofilaments containing contractile proteins called actin & myosin. When sarcomeres are regularly stretched to their end point, the number of sarcomeres increase and are added to the ends of existing myofibrils. This is what increases the muscle’s length and ROM.

There are two primary reflexes that are engaged when you do a stretch: the “stretch/ myostatic reflex” and the “golgi tendon reflex”.

Stretch/Mysotatic Reflex: During the first few seconds of a stretch (6-10 seconds), tiny proprioceptive cells called muscle spindle organs (MSOs) are activated. MSOs located in the belly of the muscle contract in order to protect the muscle. Their primary function is to detect changes in the length and speed of the stretch and contract accordingly.

Golgi Tendon Reflex: After the first few seconds of a stretch, another set of proprioceptive cells called golgi tendon organs (GTOs) are engaged. Located near the tendons of a muscle, GTOs detect the amount of tension being exerted over a joint and automatically stop contracting in order to protect the muscle from being overloaded.

Knowing about these reflexes can help us to stretch in a much more effective and safe way. Here are two keep points to remember when stretching:

1. Move slowly into the stretch: In order to mitigate the effects of the stretch reflex, it’s important to move slowly into the stretch and only to the point of comfortable resistance. If you move too quickly or stretch to the point of pain, you will activate the stretch reflex and create resistance within the muscle.

2. Hold the stretch for  at least 10 seconds: After this initial period, the MSOs will cease firing and the GTOs will kick in. GTO activity will create inhibition in the muscle, allowing you to stretch further to a new end point.

In part 2 on stretching, we’ll discuss several different types of stretches, the benefits of stretching, and more pointers on how to stretch safely and effectively.


joe-azevedo2Joe Azevedo is a New York State/NCBTMB Licensed Massage Therapist, ARCB Certified Reflexologist, and an Advanced Reiki Practitioner. He is a graduate of the Swedish Institute and is the owner and founder of Brooklyn Reflexology.

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